Архитектура бренда

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Архитектура бренда

10.01.2019 статья 325
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Сегодня, когда каждый продукт коммуницирует со своим клиентом с помощью визуального языка и большинство крупных компаний владеют множеством брендов, пришло время обсудить такое понятие как «архитектура бренда». 

В самом общем понятии это словосочетание введено для того, чтобы объединить в единую систему множество брендов одной компании, чтобы они работали вместе, помогали друг другу и не вызывали конфликта в восприятии.

Архитектура бренда — иерархия брендов компаний, отражение её маркетинговой стратегии, а также последовательность и вербально-визуальная упорядоченность всех элементов бренда (Википедия).

Это понятие было введено в маркетинговую терминологию в 1989 г. крупнейшим специалистом в области брендинга К. Макреем.

Под архитектурой бренда понимается такой тип композиции (структуры) брендов, которая основана на определённом сочетании ролей в брендовом портфеле и на конкретном товарном предложении. Под брендовым портфелем / портфелем брендов подразумевается совокупность брендов, структурированных по определённому принципу и взаимосвязанных друг с другом.

Дэвид Аакер сравнивает архитектуру бренда с футбольной командой: «Если рассматривать каждый бренд как футбольного игрока, то идентичность и программы коммуникаций – это инструменты или упражнения, улучшающие качества одного игрока. Между тем архитектура бренда предполагает работу тренера, который расставляет игроков на правильные позиции и заставляет их действовать по принципу команды, а не группы отдельных игроков».

 

Типы архитектур

Профессионал в сфере брендинга А. Уиллер выделяет основные типы архитектур: монолитную или Дом бренда, зонтичных или дочерних брендов, поддерживающую, плюралистическую и т. д. Для наглядности объединим все предложенные классификации в три группы.

архитектура бренда

Монобренд (дом бренда)

Теоретически повсеместно используют материнский или корпоративный бренд. Различаться могут только названия компаний или продуктов, начертанных корпоративным шрифтом или же неизменен логотип, а товарные знаки различны, при этом они выполнены в едином корпоративном стиле.

яндекс

Портфель брендов (дом брендов)

Дом брендов состоит из индивидуальных брендов, которые принадлежат одному владельцу. Портфель брендов определяется как совокупность всех брендов, которыми владеет данная компания.

Индивидуальный бренд используется для одного товара в группе товаров или в товарной линии. То есть как самостоятельный бренд отдельных товарных линий или товарного ассортимента в отличие от бренда семейства. За ним закрепляется индивидуальное имя бренда.

вимм билл данн

 

Гибридная модель (комбинированная архитектура)

В переходный период, когда в процессе объединения большого количества компаний (а также при поглощении компаний с известными брендами), часть архитектуры является монолитной, другая часть содержит индивидуальные бренды.

информзащита

Алгоритм создания

  1. Определение роли каждого бренда внутри портфеля.
  2. Анализ роли каждого бренда в контексте «товар—рынок».
  3. Разработка структуры портфеля.
  4. Графическое и вербальное воплощение архитектуры.

 

Роли предопределяют дизайн архитектуры бренда, его структуру и графическую визуализацию. Для определения роли бренда (или «амплуа») в портфеле оценивается финансовое состояние отдельного бренда и его конкурентное положение на рынке. С указанной точки зрения бренды можно классифицировать по активной позиции в портфеле:

  • Бренды-рычаги.
  • Стратегические бренды.
  • Бренды-«дойные коровы».
  • Бренды-«кандидаты на деинвестирование».

Что даёт

По мнению специалистов в области маркетинга и бренд-менеджмента построение архитектуры бренда даёт ряд существенных выгод и преимуществ компании:

  • Чётко сформулированная архитектура бренда даёт возможность избежать «каннибализма» брендов внутри портфеля компании. Результат: снижение риска внутренней конкуренции между брендами компании, уменьшение вероятности потери прибыли.
  • Анализ ролей брендов в брендовом портфеле позволяет точечно распределить денежные ресурсы на их развитие. Это помогает избежать односторонней оценки на основе текущего объёма продаж каждого бренда. Анализ позволяет выявить стратегические бренды, обладающие высокими темпами роста, но ещё малой рыночной долей и аккумулировать для их развития достаточный объём денежных средств.
  • Системный поход при проектировании архитектуры бренда обеспечивает синергетический эффект от взаимодействия брендов внутри брендового портфеля благодаря оптимизации ролей брендов в различных товарно-рыночных контекстах, что повышает эффективность работы организации.
  • Ускоренный темп наращивание капитала бренда, вместе с ним растёт и стоимость бренда (ценность бренда. Взаимосвязанные бренды, их линейные и категориальные расширения, а также мероприятия совместного брендинга дают возможность компании результативно использовать основные активы, что приводит к росту стоимости брендового портфеля в целом. Вместе с тем, появление «мегабренда» может привести к размыванию восприятия бренда потребителем. Доля рынка каждого бренда изменяется в обратной пропорции по отношению к изменению количества расширений бренда или его семейства.
  • Отлаженная архитектура бренда является платформой будущего развития портфеля брендов, позволяет эффективно выстроить отношения идентичностей брендов внутри портфеля на долгосрочную перспективу.

Совокупность этих факторов обеспечивает продукции компании сохранение лидирующих позиций на рынке, минимизацию финансовых потерь.

 

Важно, чтобы стратегия брендинга и архитектура брендов как ее часть были тесно увязаны с общей стратегией маркетинга и с общей стратегией бизнеса компании.

 

Материал: Алевтина Шаталова, арт-директор журнала Bright и креативного агентства «Зайчапай»

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